This first missive was sent in by reader Dennis:
One website I found helpful in the
of the so-called collapses (at first referred to as being
implosion-like, a few times, by unwitting, but visually honest members
of the news
industry), was http://www.nyfsd.org/history.htm
the events surrounding a 12-alarm fire in a 34-storey downtown
high rise office building on January 23, 1991. Of significance to
the WTC 9/11 incidents, this high rise (1) had a structural design very
similar to WTC 1 and 2, (2) had a fire which burnt out of control for
18 hours, and (3) had 10 floors destroyed...but DIDN'T COLLAPSE. I
mention this article because of the importance this new study you
cite gives to the supposed catastrophic impact fire had on the WTC
recently, the 1991 Philadelphia fire, and the First Interstate Bank
Los Angeles on May 4, 1988, were the most frequently cited comparisons
to the Twin
Tower fires. Both of those earlier fires burned for much longer, and at
far greater intensity, than did the fires in the WTC towers, and yet
both buildings somehow managed to remain standing.
We now have an even more dramatic comparison. On the night of February
12, the Windsor building in Madrid, Spain caught fire. The 32-story,
steel-framed structure burned out of control for
nearly twenty-four hours, at temperatures approaching an astounding
Fahrenheit. By the time the fire was brought under control, the
building had been reduced to little more than a steel skeleton. And yet
that skeleton remained standing.
Incredibly enough, the upper floors of the Windsor tower appear to have
partially collapsed, almost in a pancake-like fashion. What we have
here then is a slightly scaled-down version of almost exactly what we
are told happened at the World Trade Center towers: a raging inferno,
burning at unfathomably high temperatures, initiated a partial collapse
of the upper floors of a highrise structure.
There is, of course, one major difference: the Windsor building did not
disappear into a cloud of dust.
Engulfs Office Building in Madrid
By HAROLD HECKLE
MADRID, Spain Feb 12, 2005 — A
raging fire swept through the upper levels of a 32-story office
building in downtown Madrid early Sunday, melting it like a candle and
collapsing the top floors in a shower of flaming debris.
Bright orange flames shot out the sides of the Windsor Building,
which is believed to be empty and is near one of Madrid's main
The fire started around 11:30 p.m. Saturday and was still burning
out of control about three hours later. At least nine upper stories
were on fire and muffled explosions
could be heard in the building.
The cause of the blaze was not immediately known, but emergency
services spokesman Javier Ayuso said it might have been a short
officials were afraid the building might collapse entirely.
"At this point the fire can't be fought and we have to wait," said
Pedro Calvo, the official in charge of the fire department and other
Firefighters and police evacuated nearby buildings and
fear of a total collapse. Firefighters also started hosing down
neighboring office buildings to keep the fire from spreading.
Ayuso said three firefighters were treated for smoke inhalation and
Construction of the Windsor Building, a landmark in Madrid's
district, began in 1973 and was completed in 1979. It was surrounded by
scaffolding due to recent repairs, Ayuso said.
The building housed the offices of Deloite Touche Tohmatsu, a
multinational financial services company.
By ED MCCULLOUGH
Threatens Skyscraper in Madrid
Feb. 13, 2005
struggled for nearly 24 hours before
finally controlling Madrid's worst blaze in recent memory, which
reduced one of the city's tallest office buildings to a blackened hulk
of twisted wreckage.
Thick smoke and temperatures that soared as high as 1,472 degrees
Fahrenheit prevented firefighters from entering the 32-story Windsor
building until late Sunday. The fire, which left seven people
slightly injured, broke out Saturday just before midnight.
office tower was heavily damaged but did not collapse, as had been
feared. However, officials said it was unstable and closed the area
around the building.
"What worries us
now is its structural state because of the high
temperatures it was subjected to," said Merardo Tudelo, director of the
Madrid Municipal Firefighters.
Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardon said "the situation is still critical."
Emergency officials planned to keep the area in the Spanish capital's
banking and business district cordoned off at least through Monday.
ordered nearby businesses to remain closed for the next few
days. Service on three subway lines running under or near the building
would also be curtailed, he said.
"This is the biggest fire ... this city has ever had," Gallardon said.
It was not immediately clear what caused the fire, but the building
almost empty on Saturday night when the first alarm went off. Only one
of seven firefighters who suffered smoke inhalation remained
hospitalized Sunday, Gallardon said.
Construction of the shiny gold Windsor Building began in 1973 and was
completed in 1979. It became a landmark in Madrid's business district.
The building was surrounded with scaffolding due to
recent repairs, and a huge crane remained perched on its roof.
battle Madrid inferno
February 13, 2005
Spain -- A fire said to be the worst in Madrid's history destroyed a
skyscraper in the Spanish capital's financial district on Sunday.
More than 100 firefighters worked to extinguish the blaze in the
city's eighth-tallest building, the 32-story Windsor Tower.
fire is not under control," Madrid Mayor Alberto Ruiz Gallardon told
reporters. "We are all aware that we are fighting the biggest fire that
the city of Madrid has had in its entire history," he said.
"The fire department is making an extraordinary effort to stop the
fire spreading to surrounding buildings," he said.
fire left seven people slightly injured, The Associated Press reported.
Thick smoke and searing temperatures were still preventing firefighters
from entering the building on Sunday night.
Gallardon told the AP
the building was in danger of collapsing, and ordered nearby businesses
to remain closed for the next few days. The operation of three subway
lines running under or near the damaged building would also be
curtailed, he said.
was not immediately clear what caused the fire.
Magdalena Alvarez, minister of development, said a short circuit may
have started the fire, but it would be investigated.
said there was no reason to believe the fire was an act
building was almost empty when the first alarm went off. Only one of
the seven firefighters who suffered smoke inhalation remained
hospitalized Sunday, Gallardon told the AP.
Although the flames
were no longer visible from outside by Sunday night, gray smoke and ash
stoked by gusts of wind continued to pour from the blackened shell of
Earlier in the day, several top floors collapsed
onto lower ones, the AP reported. Firefighter official Fernando Munilla
said the entire building -- which at about 106 meters (350 feet) high
is among the 10 tallest in Madrid -- could collapse.
partial collapses keep happening, it would be lying to say it's
impossible that the whole building couldn't fall down," he said.
crews at the scene said firefighters were waiting for the temperature
inside the building to drop, which they said would lessen the danger of
At their peak, temperatures reached 800 degrees Celsius (1,472
Fahrenheit), said Javier Sanz, head of Madrid's firefighters.
of the shiny gold Windsor Building began in 1973 and was completed in
1979. It became a landmark structure in Madrid's business district. The
building was surrounded with scaffolding because of recent repairs, and
a huge crane remained perched on its roof.
* * * * * * * * * *
There are troubling questions that need
to be asked here about how this fire started, how it
spread so quickly, and why it burned with such ferocity. But whatever
the cause, it is clear from these images that this was no
run-of-the-mill fire. For nearly twenty-four hours, the Windsor
building sustained temperatures that, according to official
mythology, brought one of the Twin Towers down in less than an hour.
And despite the claims in these reports that the Windsor tower melted
"like a candle," or was reduced to a "blackened hulk
of twisted wreckage," the
building's steel framework withstood the inferno.
Notably, the entire core of the
structure is still intact (and still supporting the large crane
temporarily mounted on
the roof), as are all of the lower floors of the building -- even
though the tower continued to burn at exceedingly high temperatures for
many hours after the partial collapses began. What the Windsor fire
revealed, quite dramatically, is that even if the WTC towers had been
subjected to ferocious fires, and even if those fires had instigated
the collapse of the upper floor assemblies, we are still lacking an
explanation for the complete and total destruction of the buildings.
So what was it again that caused
the collapse of the Twin Towers (and WTC7)?
* * * * * * * * * *
When I posted Part III of this series, on October 27, 2004, the
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was hard at work
on a report that was allegedly going to explain how fires brought the
Twin Towers crashing down. Two weeks later, on November 11, Kevin Ryan
of Underwriters Laboratories dispatched the following letter to Dr.
Frank Gayle of NIST.
The response to Ryan's correspondence was almost immediate: Kevin
Ryan was fired.
Having recently reviewed your team's report
of 10/19/04, I felt the
need to contact you directly.
As I'm sure you know, the company I work for
certified the steel
components used in the construction of the WTC buildings. In requesting
information from both our CEO and Fire Protection business manager last
year, I learned that they did not agree on the essential aspects of the
story, except for one thing - that the samples we certified met all
They suggested we all be patient and
understand that UL was working
with your team, and that tests would continue through this year. I'm
aware of UL's attempts to help, including performing tests on models of
the floor assemblies. But the results of these tests appear to indicate
that the buildings should have easily withstood the thermal stress
caused by pools of burning jet fuel.
There continues to be a number of "experts"
making public claims about
how the WTC buildings fell. One such person, Dr. Hyman Brown from the
WTC construction crew, claims that the buildings collapsed due to fires
at 2000F melting the steel (1). He
states "What caused the building to
collapse is the airplane fuel…burning at 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The
steel in that five-floor area melts." Additionally, the newspaper that
quotes him says "Just-released preliminary findings from a National
Institute of Standards and Technology study of the World Trade Center
collapse support Brown’s theory."
We know that the steel components were
certified to ASTM E119. The time
temperature curves for this standard require the samples to be exposed
to temperatures around 2000F for several hours. And as we all agree,
the steel applied met those specifications. Additionally, I think we
can all agree that even un-fireproofed steel will not melt until
reaching red-hot temperatures of nearly 3000F (2).
Why Dr. Brown would
imply that 2000F would melt the high-grade steel used in those
buildings makes no sense at all.
The results of your recently published
metallurgical tests seem to
clear things up (3), and support your
team's August 2003 update as
detailed by the Associated Press (4), in
which you were ready to "rule
out weak steel as a contributing factor in the collapse." The
evaluation of paint deformation and spheroidization seem very
straightforward, and you noted that the samples available were adequate
for the investigation. Your comments suggest that the steel was
probably exposed to temperatures of only about 500F (250C), which is
what one might expect from a thermodynamic analysis of the situation.
However the summary of the new NIST report
seems to ignore your
findings, as it suggests that these low temperatures caused exposed
bits of the building’s steel core to "soften and buckle." (5)
Additionally this summary states that the perimeter columns softened,
yet your findings make clear that "most perimeter panels (157 of 160)
saw no temperature above 250C." To soften steel for the purposes of
forging, normally temperatures need to be above 1100C (6).
new summary report suggests that much lower temperatures were able
to not only soften the steel in a matter of minutes, but lead to rapid
This story just does not add up. If steel
from those buildings did
soften or melt, I’m sure we can all agree that this was certainly not
due to jet fuel fires of any kind, let alone the briefly burning fires
in those towers. That fact should be of great concern to all Americans.
Alternatively, the contention that this steel did fail at temperatures
around 250C suggests that the majority of deaths on 9/11 were due to a
safety-related failure. That suggestion should be of great concern to
There is no question that the events of 9/11
are the emotional driving
force behind the War on Terror. And the issue of the WTC collapse is at
the crux of the story of 9/11. My feeling is that your metallurgical
tests are at the crux of the crux of the crux. Either you can make
sense of what really happened to those buildings, and communicate this
quickly, or we all face the same destruction and despair that come from
global decisions based on disinformation and “chatter”.
Thanks for your efforts to determine what
happened on that day. You may
know that there are a number of other current and former government
employees that have risked a great deal to help us to know the truth.
I've copied one of these people on this message as a sign of respect
and support. I believe your work could also be a nucleus of fact around
which the truth, and thereby global peace and justice, can grow again.
Please do what you can to quickly eliminate the confusion regarding the
ability of jet fuel fires to soften or melt structural steel.
2. CRC Handbook of
Chemistry and Physics, 61st edition, pg D-187
Environmental Health Laboratories
A Division of Underwriters Laboratories